Homework refers to tasks given to students by their teachers to be completed outside of usual lessons.
Homework activities vary significantly, particularly between younger and older students, including but not limited to home reading activities, longer projects or essays and more directed and focused work such as revision for tests.
Our definition also includes activities such as ‘homework clubs’ where students have the opportunity to complete homework in school but outside normal school hours, and ‘flipped learning’ models, where students prepare at home for classroom discussion and application tasks.
1. Homework has a positive impact on average (+ 5 months), particularly with students in secondary schools.
2. Some students may not have a quiet space for home learning – it is important for schools to consider how home learning can be supported (e.g. through providing homework clubs for students).
3. Homework that is linked to classroom work tends to be more effective. In particular, studies that included feedback on homework had higher impacts on learning.
4. It is important to make the purpose of homework clear to students (e.g. to increase a specific area of knowledge, or to develop fluency in a particular area).
The average impact of homework is positive across both primary and secondary school. There is, however variation behind this average with homework set in primary school having a smaller impact on average (see below).
The quality of the task set appears to be more important than the quantity of work required from the student. There is some evidence that the impact of homework diminishes as the amount of time students spend on it increases. The studies reviewed with the highest impacts set homework twice a week in a particular subject.
Evidence also suggests that how homework relates to learning during normal school time is important. In the most effective examples homework was an integral part of learning, rather than an add-on. To maximise impact, it also appears to be important that students are provided with high quality feedback on their work (see Feedback).
There is some Australian-based evidence for non-academic benefits of homework. For example, it may help to develop a routine for students and self-motivated working patterns. Nonetheless, there remains a dearth of research literature on the impact of homework on primary students’ learning and outcomes specifically in an Australian or New Zealand context.
Since 2012, two evidence reviews on homework in schools have been published (in New South Wales and Victoria). Both reviews concluded that there was little evidence that homework improves academic performance for primary school students, but noted that homework could have other benefits, such as promoting parental engagement. The Victorian reviewers noted that few high-quality studies had been conducted in Australia, suggesting that new research would be worthwhile.
Studies in secondary schools show greater impact (+5 months) than in primary schools (+3 months).
Similar positive effects are found for reading, mathematics and science.
Most homework set is individual, studies involving collaboration with peers have higher effects (+6 months), though the number of studies is small.
Studies involving digital technology typically have greater impact (+ 6 months).
Students from disadvantaged backgrounds typically receive additional benefits from homework. However, surveys in England suggest that students from disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to have a quiet working space, are less likely to have access to a device suitable for learning or a stable internet connection and may receive less parental support to complete homework and develop effective learning habits. These difficulties may increase the gap in achievement for disadvantaged students.
Homework clubs can help to overcome these barriers by offering students the resources and support needed to undertake homework or revision. Broader evidence suggests that homework should not be used as a punishment or penalty for poor performance.
Homework has an impact by enabling students to undertake independent learning to practice and consolidate skills, conduct in-depth inquiry, prepare for lessons or revise for exams. When implementing homework, the evidence suggests a wide variation in impact. Therefore, schools should consider the ‘active’ ingredients to the approach, which may include:
- Considering the quality of homework over the quantity.
- Using well-designed tasks that are linked to classroom learning.
- Clearly setting out the aims of homework to students.
- Understanding and addressing any barriers to completion, such as access to a learning device or resources.
- Explicitly teaching independent learning strategies.
- Providing high-quality feedback to improve student learning.
- Monitoring the impact homework on student engagement, progress and achievement.
Teachers should seek to understand any barriers to completing homework – for example, a lack of access to a quiet space or learning materials – and aim to avoid approaches that use homework as a penalty for poor performance. When introducing new approaches, schools should consider implementation. For more information see Putting Evidence to Work – A School’s Guide to Implementation.
The average cost of homework is expected to be very low with the cost to schools largely based on teacher training and resources. Implementing homework will also require a small amount of staff time for planning and feedback.
Alongside time and cost, school leaders should consider how to maximise the effectiveness of homework through teacher professional development to promote the use of well-designed tasks to complement learning in the classroom and high-quality feedback to improve student learning. Schools should monitor the impact of different approaches to homework – such as the frequency, purpose and variety of tasks – on student engagement and attainment.
The security of the evidence around homework is rated as low. 43 studies were identified that meet the inclusion criteria of the Toolkit. The topic lost additional padlocks because:
- A large percentage of the studies are not randomised controlled trials. While other study designs still give important information about effectiveness of approaches, there is a risk that results are influenced by unknown factors that are not part of the intervention.
- A large percentage of the studies were not independently evaluated. Evaluations conducted by organisations connected with the approach – for example, commercial providers, typically have larger impacts, which may influence the overall impact of the strand.
As with any evidence review, the Toolkit summarises the average impact of approaches when researched in academic studies. It is important to consider your context and apply your professional judgement when implementing an approach in your setting.