What is it?
Self-regulatory skills can be defined as the ability of children to manage their own behaviour and aspects of their learning. In the early years, efforts to develop self-regulation often seek to improve levels of self-control and reduce impulsivity. Activities typically include supporting children in articulating their plans and learning strategies and reviewing what they have done. A number of approaches use stories or characters to help children remember different learning strategies. It is often easier to observe children’s current self-regulation capabilities when they are playing or interacting with a peer. Self-regulation strategies can overlap with Social and emotional learning strategies and Behaviour interventions.
How effective is it?
The development of self-regulation and executive function is consistently linked with successful learning, including pre-reading skills, early mathematics and problem solving. Strategies that seek to improve learning by increasing self-regulation have an average impact of five additional months’ progress. A number of studies suggest that improving the self-regulation skills of children in the early years is likely to have a lasting positive impact on later learning at school, and also have a positive impact on wider outcomes such as behaviour and persistence.
There are some indications that children from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to begin kindergarten or preparatory with weaker self-regulation skills than their peers. As a result, embedding self-regulation strategies into early years teaching is likely to be particularly beneficial for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.
More evaluation is needed to identify specific programs or curricula that have a positive impact on academic outcomes through improving self-regulation for young children. However, the small number of studies that have been conducted in early years settings, and existing evidence from older age groups, suggests that promising approaches are likely to balance explicit instruction with providing scaffolded opportunities for children to practice new skills. For example, early years practitioners might talk to children about how to follow a “Plan, Do, Review” approach for a simple building activity.
How secure is the evidence?
The evidence related to self-regulation strategies in the early years is currently limited. Several studies have established the link between self-regulation and success in learning, but fewer have assessed the educational impact (for example on early mathematics or literacy skills) of approaches that sought to improve self-regulation. In addition, though many interventions include components that seek to improve self-management and self-regulation, it has not been possible to prove that it is these specific components that have been responsible for improvements.
Much of the evidence in existing syntheses of research relates to older children in primary and secondary school (age 5 and older). The evidence is strongest for immediate impact on behavioural outcomes (such as on interaction or persistence).
Overall, self-regulation is a promising area, but one that would benefit from more rigorous evaluation in early years settings to identify how to achieve benefit for young children’s learning.
What are the costs?
Generally, the costs associated with implementation of self-regulation strategies in Early Learning and Care (ELC) services and preschool settings are for professional development and to purchase materials. These costs vary greatly and are dependent on employment conditions and location. For example, the costs for professional development are generally for relief staff. Costs per hour can be from $35 to $70 for a teacher; a certificate trained educator $19 - $35 per hour; plus, employment indirect costs (a further 15-30). Costs for resources and materials are comparatively low. Self-regulation strategies targeted at specific individuals, such as those delivered by clinicians, will be much more expensive.
What should I consider?
Self-regulation strategies have high potential, but may require careful implementation. Have you set aside time for professional development prior to putting a new strategy in place?
How do you assess children’s current capabilities in managing their behaviour, for example when they are playing or interacting with their peers?
How will you monitor the impact of developing children’s self-regulation strategies?
How will you manage classroom time to balance explicit teaching with scaffolded opportunities for children to practice and explore new skills?